An Introduction to Phonology (Learning About Language) by Francis Katamba

By Francis Katamba

This publication is an creation to phonological conception put in the framework of contemporary mainstream generative phonology. The publication is split into major elements. the 1st introduces readers to simple strategies of articulatory phonetics, classical phonemics and conventional generative phonology. the second one half is dedicated to phonological idea. the character and agency of phonological representations in nonlinear generative phonology can also be explored.

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Normally, syllabic sounds are auditorily more salient than adjacent nonsyllabic sounds. Vowels are syllabic and so are syllabic consonants such as [J] in bottle and candle or the nasal [n] in cotton and [m] in bottom. 3. S O N O R A N T - N O N S O N O R A N T (OBSTRUENT) [± sonorant] Sonorants are produced with a vocal cavity disposition which makes spontaneous voicing easy while nonsonorants (obstruents) have a vocal cavity disposition which inhibits spontaneous voicing. In other words,the unmarked (normally expected and natural) state for sonorants is to be voiced, while for obstruents the unmarked state of affairs is to be voiceless.

About the simplest system of vowel phonemes commonly found (it occurs in Aleut Eskimo and Arabic, for instance) has just three members. Many other languages, such as Spanish, Czech, Burmese, and Swahili, distinguish three degrees of aperture and have a five-member vowel system. Yet others, like Italian, Kikuyu and Efik have four degrees of aperture and a seven-member vowel system. All these systems are triangular: there is a lone low (open) vowel and at least one pair of non-low vowels. 5]: [2-5] Close Half-close Open Front unrounded Back rounded i e a u o D/O (rounded/unrounded respectively) Asymmetrical systems are logically possible but occur less commonly than symmetrical ones.

E. the functionally significant segments of a language. 1 The minimal pair test When two words are identical in all respects, except for one segment, they are referred to as a MINIMAL PAIR. 1] are minimal pairs (and so should be the pairs illustrating the contrast between [r] and [1] which you have written down). e. the method of determining that a single sound difference distinguishes the meanings of two words) is a key principle of phonemic analysis. Sounds are classified as separate phonemes if they are responsible for a difference in meaning in a minimal pair.

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